Fulvic acid is a short carbon chain small molecular structure material extracted from natural humic acid. It is the water-soluble part with the smallest molecular weight and the highest active group content in humic acid, and is widely found in nature. Among them, the proportion of fulvic acid in the soil is the largest, mainly composed of natural, small molecular weight, yellow to dark brown, amorphous, gelatinous, fat and aromatic organic polyelectrolytes, can not use a single chemical structure Said.
Second, the role of mineral source fulvic acid
1. Improved soil: fulvic acid is the food of microorganisms
Influenced by the action of fulvic acid, the soil aggregate structure can be changed. The fulvic acid contains a large number of functional groups, which act on the soil particles to form agglomerates of different sizes and stable structure. The molecular exchange capacity is between 400-600me/100g, and the ion exchange capacity of common soil is only between 10-20me/100g. “That is to say, after the soil is applied with fulvic acid, its surface activity can adsorb and exchange the fertilized fertilizer, and at the same time, the solidified part of the soil can be transformed and converted into crops that can not be absorbed by the crop. Thereby improving nutrient utilization, which is different from ordinary compound fertilizer.”
In addition, fulvic acid is also the food of microorganisms. In the soil where fulvic acid forms agglomerate structure, the activity of microorganisms is strong, the biological activity is high, the nutrient supply is sufficient, the preservation and supply of soil nutrients can be better coordinated, thereby improving soil fertility; The part of the effective nutrients that are solidified by the soil is released and absorbed by the crop.
In addition, fulvic acid can also repair heavy metal pollution in the soil. The fulvic acid complexes the heavy metals, especially the hexavalent chromium becomes trivalent chromium, which makes it passivate and changes from toxic to non-toxic. The soil that has been treated normally and systematically can be used for planting in the same year, and the amount of crops used should be increased, and the crops planted are more ecological.
In addition, fulvic acid can also adjust the pH of the soil and balance the pH of the soil. The source of fulvic acid has a two-way effect on the regulation of the soil. When it is acidified and acidified, it can adjust the soil to a pH environment suitable for crop growth. It is also necessary to mine the fulvic acid to eliminate soil compaction.
2, improve fertilizer utilization, save costs, reduce fertilizer pollution
The fulvic acid can greatly improve the fertilizer efficiency, and can be used as a slow release agent for nitrogen fertilizer, an activator for phosphate fertilizer, a quick-acting agent for potassium fertilizer, and a chelating agent for micro-fertilizer, with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer and trace element fertilizer.
Third, enhance crop resistance: drought resistance, cold resistance, disease yield, crop yield, and crop quality
1. Improve resistance.
The source fulvic acid can reduce the stomata opening strength of plant leaves, reduce leaf transpiration, reduce water consumption, improve the water status of plants, ensure the normal growth and development of crops under drought conditions, and enhance drought resistance. . Humic acid is mostly amphoteric colloid, which has large surface activity and inhibits fungi. It can enhance crop coldness, be easily adsorbed by cell membrane, change cell membrane permeability, promote absorption of inorganic nutrients, prevent rot disease, root rot, and reduce pests and diseases. .
2.To promote crop breathing.
When fulvic acid and humic acid are applied, it can be expressed on the crop: the root system is developed and the secondary roots are increased. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences used ammonium sulphate and ammonium humate as a comparative test. The data showed that ammonium humate could increase the respiration intensity of rice by 18.2% and the light and intensity by 12.2%.
3. It is to promote the activity of the enzyme.
One is to promote enzyme activity in the soil, and the other is to promote the activity of the plant itself, increasing by 24.4%-175.6%. After the application of fulvic acid in different crops, the activity of the enzyme was increased differently. Taking wheat as an example, the application of fulvic acid can increase the enzyme activity of wheat by 62%-82%, and promote the growth, respiration and photosynthesis of wheat. When the crop is in premature aging or water shortage, the nitrate reductase in the plant will decrease. According to a set of experimental data on wheat, the decay rate of nitrate reductase can be obtained from the application of fulvic acid at the booting stage and filling stage. 37% reduced to 21%, making wheat drought-resistant and avoiding premature aging.
4. Promote early germination and increase the emergence rate.
After seed dressing with fulvic acid, taking wheat as an example, the emergence rate can be increased by 10%-30%, and emergence in 1-3 days. In rice, the seedling rate can be increased by 27% – 38%. In addition, for different crops, the seedling rate can be increased by 10%-30%.
5. Promote the development of root systems.
Under normal circumstances, the application of humic acid and fulvic acid can increase the root system by about 30%, which can increase the crop tillering rate, root coefficient and length. Seed dressing with fulvic acid, the number of winter wheat in the appropriate sowing period increased by 27.9%, the secondary root length increased by 43.96%, the number of tillers per plant increased by 18.18, the number of wheat roots increased by 13.24%, and the secondary root length increased by 28%. The number of tillers per plant increased by 11.63%.
6.With the source of fulvic acid to improve the quality of the child.
Humic acid can form complexes or chelates with trace elements, increase the amount of trace elements moving from the roots to the leaves or other parts, regulate the ratio and balance of macroelements and trace elements, and strengthen the enzymes on sugar, starch and protein. , the synthesis of fat and various vitamins. It can promote the activity of the enzyme, convert the polysaccharide into soluble monosaccharide, increase the synthetic accumulation of starch, protein and fatty substances, accelerate the metabolism of the primary products from the stems or leaves to the fruits and seeds, and make the fruit full and thick.
7. Spraying the source fulvic acid on the other leaves of the crop can effectively reduce the pesticide residue and improve the utilization rate of the pesticide.
Fulvic acid sprays the foliage of the crop, effectively increasing the chlorophyll of the crop to make the leaf surface black. Spraying the surface of the fruit with fulvic acid can quickly change the color of the fruit and improve the taste of the fruit.
The source of fulvic acid reduces the input of fertilizer, saves a lot of fertilizer cost and labor cost, and also solves the problem of soil pollution caused by excessive fertilization, which can be said to be counted.